Question: How Do Cooling Towers Reduce Water Temperature?

What is the working principle of cooling tower?

Cooling tower systems work by using water to extract waste heat from a system and ejecting it into the atmosphere primarily through evaporation.

The three key components of a cooling system are the cooling tower, recirculating pump, and heat exchanger.

Water first passes through a heat exchanger where it absorbs heat..

How do cooling towers reduce condenser water temperature?

Cooling towers are used to remove heat from a building. Cooling a stream of water to a lower temperature using evaporation does this. … HVAC use of a cooling tower pairs the cooling tower with a water-cooled chiller or water-cooled condenser. Cooling towers vary in size and design based on the cooling load of a building.

Why do cooling towers overflow?

The overflow prevents too much condenser water entering the cooling tower basin. … This draining is known as the “blowdown” and causes the float valve to drop which allows fresh water to enter through the makeup inlet.

What comes out of cooling towers?

As the water cools down, some of it (approximately 2%) escapes the top of the tower as water vapour. This water vapour, which is commonly mistakenly referred to as steam, may be the most visible part of the process but it’s only a by-product of the cooling process.

What is the range of cooling tower?

The difference between the Hot Water Temperature (Cooling Tower Inlet) Temperature and Cold water (Cooling Tower Outlet) temperature is called Cooling Tower Range.

How do you calculate water loss in a cooling tower?

Cooling Tower Make-up Water Flow CalculationThe evaporation rate is approximately 2 GPM per 1 million BTU/Hr of heat rejection.The evaporation rate is approximately 3 GPM per 100 tons of refrigeration.Evaporation Rate (GPM) = Water Flow Rate (GPM) x Range (°F) x 0.001.

Which type of cooling tower is more efficient?

The film type of fill is the more efficient and provides same heat transfer in a smaller volume than the splash fill. Cold water basin: The cold water basin, located at or near the bottom of the tower, receives the cooled water that flows down through the tower and fill.

How can we increase the efficiency of a cooling tower?

How to Improve Water Efficiency on Your Cooling TowerPiping Change. Simple repairs like a change to the water piping can help you mange your energy consumption. … Focus on Recycling. … Periodically Inspect all Equipment. … Increase Cooling Cycles.

How do cooling towers cool water?

Cooling towers are a special type of heat exchanger that allows water and air to come in contact with each other to lower the temperature of the hot water. During this process, small volumes of water evaporate, lowering the temperature of the water that’s being circulated throughout the cooling tower.

Is a cooling tower a condenser?

A cooling tower is used to cool water and is a huge heat exchanger, expelling building heat into the atmosphere and returning colder water to the chiller. A cooling tower receives warm water from a chiller. This warm water is known as condenser water because it gets heat in the condenser of the chiller.

What temperature should condensed water be when it returns from a cooling tower?

Most chillers are designed for a max condenser inlet water temperature of 85 degrees F. If the entering condenser water temperature exceeds 85 degrees, the efficiency of the chiller is reduced by as much as 2% per degree above 85 degrees.

What is TR capacity in cooling towers?

Chiller Refrigeration Tons Some commercial and industrial refrigeration systems are rated in Tons of Refrigeration (TR, tons). A ton is the amount of heat removed by an air conditioning system that would melt 1 ton (2000 lbs.) of ice in 24 hours. The heat required to melt 1 lb of ice at 32 oF to water is 144 Btu.

Why the shape of cooling tower is hyperbolic?

Hyperboloid (sometimes incorrectly known as hyperbolic) cooling towers have become the design standard for all natural-draft cooling towers because of their structural strength and minimum usage of material. The hyperboloid shape also aids in accelerating the upward convective air flow, improving cooling efficiency.

How is the heat load for a cooling tower calculated?

Measuring Cooling Tower Heat Loads Using the formula of GPM X TD X 500 yields: … The formula is BTU per hr. / (GPM X 500), which becomes 350,000 / 90 X 500 = 7.8 degrees F. So lowering the flow rate by 10 percent increases the temperature difference by 0.8 degrees F.

What is the temperature of cooling tower water?

A nominal cooling tower ton is defined as the capability to cool 3 GPM (0.19 lps) of water from a 95ºF (35.0ºC) entering water temperature to an 85ºF (29.4ºC) leaving water temperature at a 78ºF (25.6ºC) entering wet-bulb temperature.

What is the lowest temperature a cooling tower can produce?

In colder climates, many designers and operators are concerned with operating cooling towers in subfreezing temperatures. By following some simple operating guidelines, cooling towers can and have been successfully operated in very cold climates (-15°C / 5°F) as shown in the photograph at right.

How long do cooling towers last?

20 yearsCooling Tower Replacement can be a costly proposition and the average life expectancy of a commercial cooling tower, according to most manufacturers, is 15 – 20 years, before they need to be rebuilt or replaced. Many cooling towers were installed in 1980’s and are 30 years old now.

What is the purpose of cooling towers?

Cooling towers are primarily used for heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) and industrial purposes. Cooling towers provide a cost-effective and energy efficient operation of systems in need of cooling. More than 1,500 industrial facilities use large quantities of water to cool their plants 2.

How many types of cooling towers are there?

threeThere are three main types of cooling towers that are defined by how water or air pass through them. These types include crossflow, counterflow, and hyperbolic. There are also two varieties classified solely on airflow, known as induced draft and passive draft cooling towers.