- Where is JGA located?
- What are wire loop lesions?
- What are mesangial cells and podocytes?
- What podocytes are and their function?
- What does mesangial mean?
- How do mesangial cells work?
- Where are granular cells located?
- What are mesangial cells?
- What is diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis?
- What is Endocapillary proliferation?
- What is the most common cause of glomerulonephritis?
- What are the signs and symptoms of glomerulonephritis?
- What happens when mesangial cells contract?
- Which one of the following agents cause relaxation of mesangial cells?
- What do mesangial cells secrete?
- What is the prognosis for glomerulonephritis?
- What is Crescentic?
- What is chronic glomerulonephritis caused by?
Where is JGA located?
The JGA is located at the vascular pole of the glomerulus, where a portion of the distal nephron comes into contact with its parent glomerulus..
What are wire loop lesions?
In addition, some glomerular capillaries stain deep red and appear acellular and thickened due to heavy deposition of subendothelial immune complex deposits. This change is called the “wire loop” lesion.
What are mesangial cells and podocytes?
Mesangial cells and their matrix form the central stalk of the glomerulus and are part of a functional unit interacting closely with endothelial cells and podocytes. Alterations in one cell type can produce changes in the others.
What podocytes are and their function?
Podocytes play an important role in glomerular function. Together with endothelial cells of the glomerular capillary loop and the glomerular basement membrane they form a filtration barrier. Podocytes cooperate with mesangial cells to support the structure and function of the glomerulus.
What does mesangial mean?
Mesangial cells are specialised cells in the kidney that make up the mesangium of the glomerulus. Together with the mesangial matrix, they form the vascular pole of the renal corpuscle. The mesangial cell population accounts for approximately 30-40% of the total cells in the glomerulus.
How do mesangial cells work?
Mesangial cells lie close to the capillary lumen and play an important role in glomerular hemodynamics and immune complex clearance. The mesangial cells produce a matrix made up of collagen, fibronectin, and proteglycans that supports the glomerular capillaries.
Where are granular cells located?
The juxtaglomerular cells (JG cells, or granular cells) are cells in the kidney that synthesize, store, and secrete the enzyme renin. They are specialized smooth muscle cells mainly in the walls of the afferent arterioles (and some in the efferent arterioles) that deliver blood to the glomerulus.
What are mesangial cells?
Mesangial cells are smooth muscle–like cells that contain actin and myosin; they connect to each other via gap junctions and to the GBM via cell processes. Contraction of mesangial cells regulates the size of the capillary lumen and thus the amount of glomerular blood flow.
What is diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis?
Diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis (DPGN) is a term used to describe a distinct histologic form of glomerulonephritis common to various types of systemic inflammatory diseases, including autoimmune disorders (eg, systemic lupus erythematosus [SLE]), vasculitis syndromes (eg, granulomatosis with polyangiitis), and …
What is Endocapillary proliferation?
Endocapillary proliferation (EP) is a common pathological finding in proliferative glomerulonephritis (GN). Its appearance indicates the presence of active lesions of GN. In this study, we reinvestigated the pathological features of EP.
What is the most common cause of glomerulonephritis?
What causes acute glomerulonephritis? The acute disease may be caused by infections such as strep throat. It may also be caused by other illnesses, including lupus, Goodpasture’s syndrome, Wegener’s disease, and polyarteritis nodosa. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment are important to prevent kidney failure.
What are the signs and symptoms of glomerulonephritis?
Glomerulonephritis signs and symptoms include:Pink or cola-colored urine from red blood cells in your urine (hematuria)Foamy urine due to excess protein (proteinuria)High blood pressure (hypertension)Fluid retention (edema) with swelling evident in your face, hands, feet and abdomen.
What happens when mesangial cells contract?
Contraction of mesangial cells is coupled with contraction of the basement membrane of the endothelium of glomerular capillaries. This causes a decrease in surface area of the basement membrane and thus a decreased glomerular filtration rate.
Which one of the following agents cause relaxation of mesangial cells?
Abstract. Glomerular mesangial cells (MC) in culture are believed to contract or relax in response to agents such as angiotensin II and cyclic AMP.
What do mesangial cells secrete?
Mesangial cells are also specialized cells and have many important functions. They secrete an extracellular matrix substance (mesangial matrix) rich in laminin and fibronectin that helps support the capillary tuft. Some mesangial cells contain actomyosin filaments and are contractile.
What is the prognosis for glomerulonephritis?
The prognosis is poor. At least 80% of people who are not treated develop end-stage kidney failure within 6 months. The prognosis is better for people younger than 60 years and when an underlying disorder causing the glomerulonephritis responds to treatment.
What is Crescentic?
Introduction. Crescentic glomerulonephritis is characterized by the presence of extensive glomerular crescents (usually greater than 50%) as the principal histologic finding. Because it often clinically presents with a rapid decline in kidney function, it is also known as rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis (RPGN).
What is chronic glomerulonephritis caused by?
A number of different medical conditions can cause chronic glomerulonephritis. Hereditary conditions may be responsible, or immune diseases may be the cause. In many cases, the exact cause is not apparent. Chronic glomerulonephritis may progress to kidney failure in some cases.